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阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR

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阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR
药品名称:阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR
药品别名:苯丙胺
英 文 名:AdderallXR
药品价格:$ 请咨询微信客服
研发公司:
适 用 症:用于治疗注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)和嗜睡症
型号规格:本品分5mg/10mg/15mg/20mg/25mg/30mg多种规格,胶囊装,每瓶100粒
药品详情:

【阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR 简述】
阿德拉AdderallXR又叫苯丙胺。是一种能够增加人的机敏性,暂时减轻疲劳感并增加攻击性的药物。

阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR_香港济民药业

阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR_香港济民药业

阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR_香港济民药业


阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR_香港济民药业

阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR_香港济民药业

 
【阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR 适应症】
 阿德拉AdderallXR用于治疗注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)和嗜睡症。 
 


【阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR 规格】
 本品分5mg/10mg/15mg/20mg/25mg/30mg多种规格,胶囊装,每瓶100粒。
    
 
【阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR 服用方法】
依症状的严重性,需严格遵从医师指导服用。

 
【阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR 注意事项】
1.长期高剂量的安非他明后突然停止会导致极度疲劳,失眠,易怒,体重增加,精神抑郁。安非他明长期滥用可导致苯丙胺精神病的表现;偶尔精神病可以发生在治疗剂量在慢性治疗作为一种治疗中出现的副作用。
2.除了青少年ADHD的治疗药物,也可用于儿童不在学校做得很好,但谁不有多动症。这些往往是从经济上贫穷的人等替代治疗或辅导是不可用的孩子。
3.Adderall是广泛使用在许多大学的“药”,由于Adderall报道能力有助于集中精力和集中到一个更高的水平比正常。它允许用户集中精力保持清醒。学生论文写作的持续异常长的时间或“填鸭式”整夜没有能量损失或浓度的考试是常见的故事。大学校园是高度竞争的或有很高的酗酒率高达25%的学生一年内使用ADHD药物,在119全国高校的学生的调查得出的结论。

 
【阿德拉缓释胶囊AdderallXR 不良反应】
 药物的副作用包括头晕,头痛和紧张,体重减轻,以及更快的心跳与血压降低。脱发,性欲减退或性冲动,和便血也被报告。此外,服用太多的Adderall药物最初会使注意力缺陷多动障碍症状恶化。在儿童长期使用苯丙胺和哌醋甲酯的研究表明,生长速率的一个暂时性的减少,不影响最终成人身高。兴奋剂的药物也减少一些人的食欲,导致体重下降,混合苯丙胺盐的这种作用比哌醋甲酯或托莫西汀更常见。视力变化已被报道。孕妇应该避免服用药物,特别是在妊娠早期。对大鼠的研究表明,长期的暴露于安非他明的大鼠从产前和产后早期行为都有变化。如上所述,在成人的其他潜在的副作用包括失眠,头痛,增加肌肉的紧张,易怒,焦虑。

AdderallXR(Adderall)

 
Adderall,[note 1] Adderall XR (extended release), and Mydayis, combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, are central nervous system (CNS) stimulants of the phenethylamine class. Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. By salt content, the active ingredients are 25% levoamphetamine salts (the levorotatory or 'left-handed' enantiomer) and 75% dextroamphetamine salts (the dextrorotatory or 'right-handed' enantiomer).[note 2][sources 1]
 
Adderall is generally well-tolerated and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD and narcolepsy. At therapeutic doses, Adderall causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in desire for sex, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control. At these doses, it induces physical effects such as a faster reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength. In contrast, much larger doses of Adderall can impair cognitive control, cause rapid muscle breakdown, or induce a psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia). The side effects of Adderall vary widely among individuals, but most commonly include insomnia, dry mouth, and loss of appetite. The risk of developing an addiction is insignificant when Adderall is used as prescribed at fairly low daily doses, such as those used for treating ADHD; however, the routine use of Adderall in larger daily doses poses a significant risk of addiction due to the pronounced reinforcing effects that are present at high doses. Recreational doses of Adderall are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic doses, and carry a far greater risk of serious adverse effects.[sources 2]
 
The two amphetamine enantiomers that compose Adderall (i.e., levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine) alleviate the symptoms of ADHD and narcolepsy by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain, which results in part from their interactions with human trace amine-associated receptor 1 (hTAAR1) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in neurons. Dextroamphetamine is a more potent CNS stimulant than levoamphetamine, but levoamphetamine has slightly stronger cardiovascular and peripheral effects and a longer elimination half-life (i.e., it remains in the body longer) than dextroamphetamine. The levoamphetamine component of Adderall has been reported to improve the treatment response in some individuals relative to dextroamphetamine alone. Adderall's active ingredient, amphetamine, shares many chemical and pharmacological properties with the human trace amines, particularly phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, the latter of which is a positional isomer of amphetamine.[sources 3] In 2016, it was the 45th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 17 million prescriptions.[31]
 
Medical uses
 
Adderall is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy (a sleep disorder).[7][11] Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage,[32][33]but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines appear to improve brain development and nerve growth.[34][35][36] Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia.[34][35][36]
Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of ADHD.[37][38][39] Randomized controlled trials of continuous stimulant therapy for the treatment of ADHD spanning 2 years have demonstrated treatment effectiveness and safety.[37][39] Two reviews have indicated that long-term continuous stimulant therapy for ADHD is effective for reducing the core symptoms of ADHD (i.e., hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity), enhancing quality of life and academic achievement, and producing improvements in a large number of functional outcomes[note 3] across 9 categories of outcomes related to academics, antisocial behavior, driving, non-medicinal drug use, obesity, occupation, self-esteem, service use (i.e., academic, occupational, health, financial, and legal services), and social function.[38][39] One review highlighted a nine-month randomized controlled trial of amphetamine treatment for ADHD in children that found an average increase of 4.5 IQpoints, continued increases in attention, and continued decreases in disruptive behaviors and hyperactivity.[37] Another review indicated that, based upon the longest follow-up studies conducted to date, lifetime stimulant therapy that begins during childhood is continuously effective for controlling ADHD symptoms and reduces the risk of developing a substance use disorder as an adult.[39]
 
Current models of ADHD suggest that it is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems;[23] these functional impairments involve impaired dopamine neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic projection and norepinephrine neurotransmission in the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the prefrontal cortex.[23] Psychostimulants like methylphenidate and amphetamine are effective in treating ADHD because they increase neurotransmitter activity in these systems.[13][23][40] Approximately 80% of those who use these stimulants see improvements in ADHD symptoms.[41] Children with ADHD who use stimulant medications generally have better relationships with peers and family members, perform better in school, are less distractible and impulsive, and have longer attention spans.[42][43]The Cochrane Collaboration's reviews[note 4] on the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults with pharmaceutical amphetamines stated that short-term studies have demonstrated that these drugs decrease the severity of symptoms, but they have higher discontinuation rates than non-stimulant medications due to their adverse side effects.[45][46] A Cochrane Collaboration review on the treatment of ADHD in children with tic disorders such as Tourette syndrome indicated that stimulants in general do not make tics worse, but high doses of dextroamphetamine could exacerbate tics in some individuals.[47]
 
Contraindications
 
According to the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA),[note 5]amphetamine is contraindicated in people with a history of drug abuse,[note 6] cardiovascular disease, severe agitation, or severe anxiety.[73][74][75] It is also contraindicated in people currently experiencing advanced arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), glaucoma(increased eye pressure), hyperthyroidism (excessive production of thyroid hormone), or moderate to severe hypertension.[73][74][75] These agencies indicate that people who have experienced allergic reactions to other stimulants or who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors(MAOIs) should not take amphetamine,[73][74][75] although safe concurrent use of amphetamine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors has been documented.[76][77] These agencies also state that anyone with anorexia nervosa, bipolar disorder, depression, hypertension, liver or kidney problems, mania, psychosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, seizures, thyroid problems, tics, or Tourette syndrome should monitor their symptoms while taking amphetamine.[74][75] Evidence from human studies indicates that therapeutic amphetamine use does not cause developmental abnormalities in the fetus or newborns (i.e., it is not a human teratogen), but amphetamine abuse does pose risks to the fetus.[75] Amphetamine has also been shown to pass into breast milk, so the IPCS and USFDA advise mothers to avoid breastfeeding when using it.[74][75] Due to the potential for reversible growth impairments,[note 7] the USFDA advises monitoring the height and weight of children and adolescents prescribed an amphetamine pharmaceutical.[74]
 
Overdose
 
An amphetamine overdose can lead to many different symptoms, but is rarely fatal with appropriate care.[2][75][88] The severity of overdose symptoms increases with dosage and decreases with drug tolerance to amphetamine.[27][75] Tolerant individuals have been known to take as much as 5 grams of amphetamine in a day, which is roughly 100 times the maximum daily therapeutic dose.[75] Symptoms of a moderate and extremely large overdose are listed below; fatal amphetamine poisoning usually also involves convulsions and coma.[15][27] In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an "amphetamine use disorder" resulted in an estimated 3,788 deaths worldwide (3,425–4,145 deaths, 95% confidence).[note 8][89]
 
Pathological overactivation of the mesolimbic pathway, a dopamine pathway that connects the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens, plays a central role in amphetamine addiction.[90][91] Individuals who frequently overdose on amphetamine during recreational use have a high risk of developing an amphetamine addiction, since repeated overdoses gradually increase the level of accumbal ΔFosB, a "molecular switch" and "master control protein" for addiction.[92][93][94] Once nucleus accumbens ΔFosB is sufficiently overexpressed, it begins to increase the severity of addictive behavior (i.e., compulsive drug-seeking) with further increases in its expression.[92][95] While there are currently no effective drugs for treating amphetamine addiction, regularly engaging in sustained aerobic exercise appears to reduce the risk of developing such an addiction.[96][97] Sustained aerobic exercise on a regular basis also appears to be an effective treatment for amphetamine addiction;[sources 8]exercise therapy improves clinical treatment outcomes and may be used as a combination therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy, which is currently the best clinical treatment available.[96][98][99]Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use but is unlikely to arise from typical long-term medical use at therapeutic doses.[19][20][21] Drug tolerance develops rapidly in amphetamine abuse (i.e., a recreational amphetamine overdose), so periods of extended use require increasingly larger doses of the drug in order to achieve the same effect.[111][112]
 
Biomolecular mechanisms
 
Chronic use of amphetamine at excessive doses causes alterations in gene expression in the mesocorticolimbic projection, which arise through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms.[113][114][115] The most important transcription factors[note 9] that produce these alterations are ΔFosB, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB).[114] ΔFosB is the most significant biomolecular mechanism in addiction because the overexpression of ΔFosB in the D1-type medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens is necessary and sufficient[note 10] for many of the neural adaptations and behavioral effects (e.g., expression-dependent increases in drug self-administrationand reward sensitization) seen in drug addiction.[92][93][114] Once ΔFosB is sufficiently overexpressed, it induces an addictive state that becomes increasingly more severe with further increases in ΔFosB expression.[92][93] It has been implicated in addictions to alcohol, cannabinoids, cocaine, methylphenidate, nicotine, opioids, phencyclidine, propofol, and substituted amphetamines, among others.[sources 10]
ΔJunD, a transcription factor, and G9a, a histone methyltransferase enzyme, both oppose the function of ΔFosB and inhibit increases in its expression.[93][114][119] Sufficiently overexpressing ΔJunD in the nucleus accumbens with viral vectors can completely block many of the neural and behavioral alterations seen in chronic drug abuse (i.e., the alterations mediated by ΔFosB).[114] ΔFosB also plays an important role in regulating behavioral responses to natural rewards, such as palatable food, sex, and exercise.[95][114][120] Since both natural rewards and addictive drugs induce expression of ΔFosB (i.e., they cause the brain to produce more of it), chronic acquisition of these rewards can result in a similar pathological state of addiction.[95][114] Consequently, ΔFosB is the most significant factor involved in both amphetamine addiction and amphetamine-induced sex addictions, which are compulsive sexual behaviors that result from excessive sexual activity and amphetamine use.[95][121][122] These sex addictions are associated with a dopamine dysregulation syndrome which occurs in some patients taking dopaminergic drugs.[95][120]
 
The effects of amphetamine on gene regulation are both dose- and route-dependent.[115] Most of the research on gene regulation and addiction is based upon animal studies with intravenous amphetamine administration at very high doses.[115] The few studies that have used equivalent (weight-adjusted) human therapeutic doses and oral administration show that these changes, if they occur, are relatively minor.[115] This suggests that medical use of amphetamine does not significantly affect gene regulation.[115]
 
Pharmacological treatments
 
Further information: Addiction § Research
As of 2015, there is no effective pharmacotherapy for amphetamine addiction.[123][111][124] Reviews from 2015 and 2016 indicated that TAAR1-selective agonists have significant therapeutic potential as a treatment for psychostimulant addictions;[125][126] however, as of February 2016, the only compounds which are known to function as TAAR1-selective agonists are experimental drugs.[125][126] Amphetamine addiction is largely mediated through increased activation of dopamine receptors and co-localized NMDA receptors[note 11] in the nucleus accumbens;[91]magnesium ions inhibit NMDA receptors by blocking the receptor calcium channel.[91][127] One review suggested that, based upon animal testing, pathological (addiction-inducing) psychostimulant use significantly reduces the level of intracellular magnesium throughout the brain.[91]Supplemental magnesium[note 12] treatment has been shown to reduce amphetamine self-administration (i.e., doses given to oneself) in humans, but it is not an effective monotherapy for amphetamine addiction.[91]
 
Behavioral treatments
 
Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the most effective clinical treatment for psychostimulant addictions.[99] Additionally, research on the neurobiological effects of physical exercise suggests that daily aerobic exercise, especially endurance exercise (e.g., marathon running), prevents the development of drug addiction and is an effective adjunct therapy (i.e., a supplemental treatment) for amphetamine addiction.[sources 8] Exercise leads to better treatment outcomes when used as an adjunct treatment, particularly for psychostimulant addictions.[96][98][128] In particular, aerobic exercise decreases psychostimulant self-administration, reduces the reinstatement (i.e., relapse) of drug-seeking, and induces increased dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) density in the striatum.[95][128] This is the opposite of pathological stimulant use, which induces decreased striatal DRD2 density.[95] One review noted that exercise may also prevent the development of a drug addiction by altering ΔFosB or c-Fos immunoreactivity in the striatum or other parts of the reward system.[97]
 
Dependence and withdrawal
 
According to another Cochrane Collaboration review on withdrawal in individuals who compulsively use amphetamine and methamphetamine, "when chronic heavy users abruptly discontinue amphetamine use, many report a time-limited withdrawal syndrome that occurs within 24 hours of their last dose."[129] This review noted that withdrawal symptoms in chronic, high-dose users are frequent, occurring in roughly 88% of cases, and persist for 3–4 weeks with a marked "crash" phase occurring during the first week.[129] Amphetamine withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, drug craving, depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, increased movement or decreased movement, lack of motivation, sleeplessness or sleepiness, and lucid dreams.[129] The review indicated that the severity of withdrawal symptoms is positively correlated with the age of the individual and the extent of their dependence.[129] Mild withdrawal symptoms from the discontinuation of amphetamine treatment at therapeutic doses can be avoided by tapering the dose.[2]
 
Toxicity
 
In rodentsand primates, sufficiently high doses of amphetamine cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity, or damage to dopamine neurons, which is characterized by dopamine terminal degeneration and reduced transporter and receptor function.[130][131] There is no evidence that amphetamine is directly neurotoxic in humans.[132][133] However, large doses of amphetamine may indirectly cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity as a result of hyperpyrexia, the excessive formation of reactive oxygen species, and increased autoxidation of dopamine.[sources 11] Animal models of neurotoxicity from high-dose amphetamine exposure indicate that the occurrence of hyperpyrexia (i.e., core body temperature ≥ 40 °C) is necessary for the development of amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.[131] Prolonged elevations of brain temperature above 40 °C likely promote the development of amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in laboratory animals by facilitating the production of reactive oxygen species, disrupting cellular protein function, and transiently increasing blood–brain barrier permeability.[131]
 
Psychosis
 
A severe amphetamine overdose can result in a stimulant psychosis that may involve a variety of symptoms, such as delusions and paranoia.[17]A Cochrane Collaboration review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[17][136] According to the same review, there is at least one trial that shows antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[17] Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.[18][74]
 
Mechanism of action
 
Amphetamine, the active ingredient of Adderall, works primarily by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrinein the brain.[23][40] It also triggers the release of several other hormones (e.g., epinephrine) and neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin and histamine) as well as the synthesis of certain neuropeptides (e.g., cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptides).[25][148] Both active ingredients of Adderall, dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine, bind to the same biological targets,[27][28] but their binding affinities (that is, potency) differ somewhat.[27][28] Dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine are both potent full agonists (activating compounds) of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and interact with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), with dextroamphetamine being the more potent agonist of TAAR1.[28] Consequently, dextroamphetamine produces more CNS stimulation than levoamphetamine;[28][149] however, levoamphetamine has slightly greater cardiovascular and peripheral effects.[27] It has been reported that certain children have a better clinical response to levoamphetamine.[29][30]
 
In the absence of amphetamine, VMAT2 will normally move monoamines (e.g., dopamine, histamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, etc.) from the intracellular fluid of a monoamine neuron into its synaptic vesicles, which store neurotransmitters for later release (via exocytosis) into the synaptic cleft.[25] When amphetamine enters a neuron and interacts with VMAT2, the transporter reverses its direction of transport, thereby releasing stored monoamines inside synaptic vesicles back into the neuron's intracellular fluid.[25] Meanwhile, when amphetamine activates TAAR1, the receptor causes the neuron's cell membrane-bound monoamine transporters (i.e., the dopamine transporter, norepinephrine transporter, or serotonin transporter) to either stop transporting monoamines altogether (via transporter internalization) or transport monoamines out of the neuron;[24] in other words, the reversed membrane transporter will push dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin out of the neuron's intracellular fluid and into the synaptic cleft.[24] In summary, by interacting with both VMAT2 and TAAR1, amphetamine releases neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles (the effect from VMAT2) into the intracellular fluid where they subsequently exit the neuron through the membrane-bound, reversed monoamine transporters (the effect from TAAR1).[24][25]
 
 




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