济民药业,关爱无限 www.pidrug.com
香港济民药业微信二维码
198 9654 1773
当前位置:首页 > 药品资讯 > 精神科 > 阿普唑仑Xanax

阿普唑仑Xanax

[ 人气:139 | 日期: 2020-08-04 | 返回 | 打印 ]
阿普唑仑Xanax
药品名称:阿普唑仑Xanax
药品别名:
英 文 名:Xanax
药品价格:$ 美国市场售价 4.59 美元
研发公司:
适 用 症:用于治疗焦虑症、抑郁症、失眠。可作为抗惊恐药。
型号规格:每片含有效成份0.25mg/0.5mg/1mg/2mg等规格,每瓶100片装。
药品详情:

【阿普唑仑Xanax 简述】
 
    本品为新的BDZ类药物,具有同地西泮相似的药理作用,有抗焦虑、抗抑郁、镇静、催眠、抗惊厥及肌肉松弛等作用。

阿普唑仑Xanax_香港济民药业
 
【阿普唑仑Xanax 适应症】
 
    本品适用于①用于治疗焦虑症、抑郁症、失眠。可作为抗惊恐药。
 
    ②能缓解急性酒精戒断症状。
 
    ③对药源性顽固性呃逆有较好的治疗作用。
 
【阿普唑仑Xanax 规格】
 
    本品为片剂,每片含有效成份0.25mg/0.5mg/1mg/2mg等规格,每瓶100片装。
 
【阿普唑仑Xanax 服用方法】
 
    由于剂型及规格不同,用法用量请仔细阅读药品说明书或遵医嘱。
 
【阿普唑仑Xanax 注意事项】
 
    ①久用后停药有戒断症状,应避免长期使用。应逐渐停药,不可突停或减量过快。
 
    ②18岁以下儿童应慎用。
 
    ③服用本品者不宜驾驶车辆或操作机器。
 
【阿普唑仑Xanax 不良反应】
 
    与地西泮相似,但较轻微。少数患者有倦乏、头晕、口干、恶心、便秘、视力模糊、精神不集中等。久用后停药有戒断症状,应避免长期使用。

Xanax(Alprazolam)

Alprazolam, sold under the trade name Xanax among others, is a short-acting benzodiazepine.[4] It is most commonly used in short term management of anxiety disorders, specifically panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).[5] Other uses include chemotherapy-induced nausea, together with other treatments.[6] GAD improvement occurs generally within a week.[7][8] Alprazolam is available by mouth.[6]
 
Common side effects include sleepiness, depression, headaches, feeling tired, dry mouth, and memory problems.[6] Some of the sedation and tiredness may improve within a few days.[9] Due to concerns about misuse, some do not recommend alprazolam as an initial treatment for panic disorder.[10] Withdrawal or rebound symptoms may occur if use is suddenly decreased.[6] Other rare risks include suicide, possibly due to loss of inhibition.[11]Gradually decreasing the dose over weeks or months may be required.[7] Alprazolam, like other benzodiazepines, acts through the GABAA receptor.[6]
 
Alprazolam was patented in 1971 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1981.[6][12] Overall, in 2010, it was the 12th most prescribed medicine in the United States.[13] Alprazolam is a Schedule IV controlled substance and is a common drug of abuse.[14][1] It is available as a generic medication.[13] The wholesale cost in the United States is less than 0.03 USD per dose as of 2018.[15] In 2016, it was the 19th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 27 million prescriptions.[16]
 
Medical uses
 
Alprazolam is mostly used in short term management of anxiety disorders, panic disorders, and nausea due to chemotherapy.[6] Alprazolam may also be indicated for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, as well as for the treatment of anxiety conditions with co-morbid depression.[3] The FDA label advises that the physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug.[17]
Panic disorder
Alprazolam is effective in the relief of moderate to severe anxiety and panic attacks.[17]However, it is not a first line treatment since the development of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Alprazolam is no longer recommended in Australia for the treatment of panic disorder due to concerns regarding tolerance, dependence, and abuse.[10] Most evidence shows that the benefits of alprazolam in treating panic disorder last only 4 to 10 weeks. However, people with panic disorder have been treated on an open basis for up to 8 months without apparent loss of benefit.[17][3]
 
In the United States, alprazolam is FDA-approved for the treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia.[17] Alprazolam is recommended by the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) for treatment-resistant cases of panic disorder where there is no history of tolerance or dependence.[18]
Anxiety disorders
Anxiety associated with depression is responsive to alprazolam. Clinical studies have shown that the effectiveness is limited to 4 months for anxiety disorders.[17] However, the research into antidepressant properties of alprazolam is poor and has only assessed its short-term effects against depression.[19] In one study, some long term, high-dosage users of alprazolam developed reversible depression.[20] In the US, alprazolam is FDA-approved for the management of anxiety disorders (a condition corresponding most closely to the APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder) or the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety. In the UK, alprazolam is recommended for the short-term treatment (2–4 weeks) of severe acute anxiety.[3][21][22]
Nausea due to chemotherapy
Alprazolam may be used in combination with other medications for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.[6]
 
Contraindications
 
Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in children and in alcohol- or drug-dependent individuals. Particular care should be taken in pregnant or elderly people, people with substance abuse history (particularly alcohol dependence), and people with comorbidpsychiatric disorders.[23] The use of alprazolam should be avoided or carefully monitored by medical professionals in individuals with: myasthenia gravis, acute narrow-angle glaucoma, severe liver deficiencies (e.g., cirrhosis), severe sleep apnea, pre-existing respiratory depression, marked neuromuscular respiratory, acute pulmonary insufficiency, chronic psychosis, hypersensitivity or allergy to alprazolam or other benzodiazepines, and borderline personality disorder (where it may induce suicidality and dyscontrol).[22][24][25]
 
Like all central nervous system depressants, alprazolam in larger-than-normal doses can cause significant deterioration in alertness and increase drowsiness, especially in those unaccustomed to the drug's effects.[26]
 
Elderly individuals should be cautious in the use of alprazolam due to the possibility of increased susceptibility to side-effects, especially loss of coordination and drowsiness.[27]
 
Adverse effects
 
Sedative drugs, including alprazolam, have been associated with an increased risk of death.[28]
Possible side effects include:
§  Anterograde amnesia[29] and concentration problems
§  Ataxia, slurred speech[30]
§  Disinhibition[31]
§  Drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, fatigue, unsteadiness, and impaired coordination, vertigo[32][33]
§  Dry mouth (infrequent)[34]
§  Hallucinations (rare)[35]
§  Jaundice (very rare)[36]
§  Skin rash, respiratory depression, constipation[32][33]
§  Suicidal ideation or suicide[11]
§  Urinary retention (infrequent)[35]
Paradoxical reactions
Although unusual, the following paradoxical reactions have been shown to occur:
§  Aggression[37]
§  Mania, agitation, hyperactivity, and restlessness[38][39][40]
§  Rage, hostility[31]
§  Twitches and tremor[41]
 
Food and drug interactions
 
Alprazolam is primarily metabolized via CYP3A4.[42] Combining CYP3A4 inhibitors such as cimetidine, erythromycin, norfluoxetine, fluvoxamine, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, propoxyphene, and ritonavir delay the hepatic clearance of alprazolam, which may result in its accumulation[43] and increased severity of its side effects.[44][45]
 
Imipramine and desipramine have been reported increase an average of 31% and 20% respectively by the concomitant administration of alprazolam tablets.[46] Combined oral contraceptive pills reduce the clearance of alprazolam, which may lead to increased plasma levels of alprazolam and accumulation.[47]
 
Alcohol is one of the most common interactions; alcohol and alprazolam taken in combination have a synergistic effect on one another, which can cause severe sedation, behavioral changes, and intoxication. The more alcohol and alprazolam taken, the worse the interaction.[31]Combination of alprazolam with the herb kava can result in the development of a semi-comatose state.[48] Plants in the genus Hypericum (including St. John's wort) conversely can lower the plasma levels of alprazolam and reduce its therapeutic effect.[49][50][51]
 
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
 
Benzodiazepines cross the placenta, enter the fetus, and are also excreted in breast milk. Chronic administration of diazepam, another benzodiazepine, to nursing mothers has been reported to cause their infants to become lethargic and to lose weight.[27][52]
 
The use of alprazolam during pregnancy is associated with congenital abnormalities,[3][53] and use in the last trimester may cause fetal drug dependence and withdrawal symptoms in the post-natal period as well as neonatal flaccidity and respiratory problems.[54][55] However, in long-term users of benzodiazepines, abrupt discontinuation due to concerns of teratogenesis has a high risk of causing extreme withdrawal symptoms and a severe rebound effect of the underlying mental health disorder. Spontaneous abortions may also result from abrupt withdrawal of psychotropic medications, including benzodiazepines.[56]
 
Overdose
 
Overdoses of alprazolam can be mild to severe depending on the quantity ingested and if other drugs are taken in combination.[57]
 
Alprazolam overdoses cause excess central nervous system (CNS) depression and may include one or more of the following symptoms:[35]
 
§  Coma and death if alprazolam is combined with other substances.
§  Fainting
§  Hypotension (low blood pressure)
§  Hypoventilation (shallow breathing)
§  Impaired motor functions
·         Dizziness
·         Impaired balance
·         Impaired or absent reflexes
·         Muscle weakness
§  Orthostatic hypotension (fainting while standing up too quickly)
§  Somnolence (drowsiness)
 
Mechanism of action
 
Alprazolam is classed as a high-potency triazolobenzodiazepine:[78][79] a benzodiazepine with a triazole ring attached to its structure. As a benzodiazepine, alprazolam produces a variety of therapeutic and adverse effects by binding to the GABAA benzodiazepine receptor site and modulating its function; GABA receptors are the most prolific inhibitory receptor within the brain. The GABA chemical and receptor system mediates inhibitory or calming effects of alprazolam on the nervous system. Binding of alprazolam to the GABAA receptor, a chloride ion channel, enhances the effects of GABA, a neurotransmitter. When GABA binds the GABAA receptor the channel opens and chloride enters the cell which makes it more resistant to depolarisation. Therefore, alprazolam has a depressant effect on synaptic transmission to reduce anxiety.[80][81]
 
The GABAA receptor is made up of 5 subunits out of a possible 19, and GABAA receptors made up of different combinations of subunits have different properties, different locations within the brain, and, importantly, different activities with regard to benzodiazepines. Alprazolam and other triazolobenzodiazepines such as triazolam that have a triazole ring fused to their diazepine ring appear to have antidepressant properties.[29][82] This is perhaps due to the similarities shared with tricyclic antidepressants, as they have two benzene rings fused to a diazepine ring. Alprazolam causes a marked suppression of the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis. The therapeutic properties of alprazolam are similar to other benzodiazepines and include anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, hypnotic[83] and amnesic; however, it is used mainly as an anxiolytic.
 
Giving alprazolam, as compared to lorazepam, has been demonstrated to elicit a statistically significant increase in extracellular dopamine D1and D2 concentrations in the striatum.[84][85]
 
 




注:药品如有新包装,以新包装为准。以上资讯仅供医护人员内部讨论,不作任何用药依据,具体用药指引,请咨询主治医师。

更多相关资讯:返回顶部
最新药品资讯
  • Venclyxto(维奈妥拉)联合MabThera治疗慢淋白血病,患者死亡风险降低!
  • Tagrisso(Osimertinib)在英国获批用于两种肺癌适应症的治疗
  • ziritaxestat治疗弥漫性皮肤系统性硬化症(dcSSc)2期概念验证研究成功!
  • 美国FDA批准GSK三联疗法:可同时治疗哮喘和慢阻肺
  • NBIb-1817一次性治疗帕金森病(PD)显著改善运动功能、延长ON时间
  • 口服抗生素tebipenem HBr治疗cUTI和AP关键III期临床成功,疗效不劣于ertapenem
  • 下一代选择性免疫调节剂IMU-838治疗多发性硬化症(RRMS)具有显著疗效,有良好的安全性和耐受性!
  • Fintepla(芬氟拉明)口服溶液治疗Dravet综合征相关癫痫的第三项3期研究结果:抽搐发作显著减少
  • 视神经脊髓炎谱系障碍(NMOSD)创新药Enspryng(satralizumab)获美FDA批准
  • Fasenra与标准类固醇同时治疗鼻息肉三期临床结果积极
  • Darzalex Faspro申请新适应症,治疗轻链(AL)淀粉样变性!
  • 地诺单抗(Xgeva,denosumab)治疗实体瘤骨转移疗效怎样?
  • 新药IDH1抑制剂Tibsovo治疗胆管癌效果怎么样?
  • 拜耳Nubeqa(达罗他胺)治疗非转移性去势抵抗性前列腺癌显著延长患者生存!
  • FDA对罗氏Tecentriq治疗三阴性乳腺癌研究发出警告!
  • 加码多发性硬化症!罗氏启动三项临床试验研究
  • Xeglyze说明书-价格-功效与作用-副作用
  • 赛诺菲/再生元Dupixent(达必妥®)显著延缓哮喘患者肺功能下降:疗效维持3年!
  • 默沙东止咳药gefapixant2项关键III期临床试验成功:咳嗽频率显著降低
  • Ryplazim(纤溶酶原)再次申请上市:首个先天性纤溶酶原缺乏症(C-PLGD)治疗药物!
  • 拜耳Adempas用于经PDE5i治疗反应不足的肺动脉高压(PAH)患者IV期临床成功
  • Midostaurin(米哚妥林)适应症是什么?优势在哪里?
  • 艾普利Apixaban可以在哪里买到正品?
  • 维奈妥拉/维奈托克(VENETOCLAX)怎么服用?注意事项是什么?
  • 芦可替尼Ruxolitinib治疗特应性皮炎效果好不好?
  • 巯嘌呤片(6-MP)Puri-nethol治疗急性白血病效果如何?
  • 晚期HCC患者能从Ramucirumab中获益吗?
  • 赫赛汀+拉帕替尼治疗乳腺癌效果更好
  • 欧盟批准Imfinzi(英飞凡):一线治疗广泛期小细胞肺癌(ES-SCLC)!
  • 第三代强效COMT抑制剂Ongentys(opicapone)用于治疗帕金森病(PD)的新药在日本上市!


  • 如您发现本网站有文字编辑或内容错误,请点击此处发送(需要安装有foxmail或outlook支持),


    或发邮件至:info@morecare.hk,香港济民药业感谢您的到访!


    欢迎您添加香港济民药业微信,或在公众号内留言。

    香港济民微信公众号
    • 香港济民药业友情链接
    • 友情链接

    联系我们:

    地址:
    Rm. 314, Sun Ling Plaza, 30 On Kui Street, Fanling, HONG KONG
    邮箱:
    info@pidrug.com
    电话:
    198 9654 1773
    粤ICP备17150936号
    香港济民药业官方网站
    • 关注我们 :
    • 香港济民药业微博
    • 关注香港济民药业博客
    • 香港济民药业微信公众号