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盐酸舍曲林片Zoloft

[ 人气:71 | 日期: 2020-08-04 | 返回 | 打印 ]
盐酸舍曲林片Zoloft
药品名称:盐酸舍曲林片Zoloft
药品别名:
英 文 名:Zoloft
药品价格:$ 请咨询微信客服
研发公司:
适 用 症:适应症为舍曲林用于治疗抑郁症的相关症状,包括伴随焦虑、有或无躁狂史的抑郁症。
型号规格:每片含有效成份25mg/50mg/100mg,每瓶30片装。
药品详情:

 
【盐酸舍曲林片Zoloft 适应症】
   盐酸舍曲林片,适应症为舍曲林用于治疗抑郁症的相关症状,包括伴随焦虑、有或无躁狂史的抑郁症。疗效满意后,继续服用舍曲林可有效地防止抑郁症的复发和再发。舍曲林也用于治疗强迫症。疗效满意后,继续服用舍曲林可有效地防止强迫症初始症状的复发。

盐酸舍曲林片Zoloft_香港济民药业
 

【盐酸舍曲林片Zoloft 规格】
 
    本品为片剂,每片含有效成份25mg/50mg/100mg,每瓶30片装。
 
    亦有口服液剂,规格为20mg/mL。
 

【盐酸舍曲林片Zoloft 服用方法】
 
    舍曲林片每日一次口服给药,早或晚服用均可。可与食物同时服用,也可单独服用。
 
  成人剂量:
 
  初始治疗:每日服用舍曲林1片(50mg)。
 
  剂量调整:对于每日服用1片(50mg)疗效不佳而对药物耐受性较好的患者可增加剂量,因舍曲林的消除半衰期为24小时,调整剂量的时间间隔不应短于1周。最大剂量为4片(200mg)/日。
 
  服药七日内可见疗效。完全起效则需要更长的时间,强迫症的治疗尤其如此。
 
  维持治疗:长期用药应根据疗效调整剂量,并维持最低有效治疗剂量。
 
  儿童人群的剂量(儿童和青少年):
 
  强迫症 - 在儿童中(6-12岁),本品起始剂量应为25 mg,每日一次;在青少年中(13-17岁),本品起始剂量应为50 mg,每日一次。
 
  尽管尚未确立治疗强迫症的量效关系,但临床试验证明,患者可以在25-200 mg/日范围内给药,可有效治疗儿童强迫症患者(6-17 岁)。若本品25 或50 mg/日的疗效欠佳,增加剂量(最高为200 mg/日)可能使患者获益。儿童强迫症患者的体重通常低于成人,给药前应考虑此点,以避免过量给药。舍曲林的清除半衰期为24 小时,剂量调整间隔不应短于1 周。
 

【盐酸舍曲林片Zoloft 注意事项】
 
    临床症状的恶化和自杀风险
 
  患有抑郁症的成年和儿童患者,无论是否服用抗抑郁药物,他们的抑郁症都有可能恶化,并有可能出现自杀意念和自杀行为以及行为异常变化,这种风险一直会持续到病情发生明显缓解时为止。已知抑郁和某些精神障碍与自杀风险有关,并且这些精神障碍本身为自杀的最强的预兆。然而,长期以来一直有这些的担忧:在某些患者治疗早期,抗抑郁药物可能对诱导抑郁症状恶化、以及产生自杀意念、行为中起着作用。抗抑郁药物(包括SSRIs 和其他)短期安慰剂对照研究汇总分析显示,在患有抑郁症(MMD)和其他精神障碍的儿童、青少年和青年(18-24 岁)中,与安慰剂相比,抗抑郁药物增加了产生自杀想法和实施自杀行为(自杀意念、行为)的风险;在短期的临床试验没有显示,在年龄大于24 岁的成年人中,与安慰剂相比,使用抗抑郁药物会增加自杀意念、行为的风险;在年龄65 岁及以上的成年人中,使用抗抑郁药物后,自杀意念、行为的风险有所降低。
 
  在患有抑郁症、强迫症(OCD)或其他精神障碍的儿童和青少年中进行的安慰剂对照试验(共计24 项短期临床试验,9 种抗抑郁药物,包括4400 例患者)和在患有抑郁症或其他精神障碍的成年患者中进行的安慰剂对照试验(共计295 项短期临床试验(中位持续时间为2 个月),11种抗抑郁药物,愈77000 例患者],各种药物引起的自杀意念、行为的风险有很大的差异,但是大部分的药物研究显现较年轻患者自杀风险增加的趋势。在各个不同的适应症中,自杀意念、行为的绝对风险不同,在抑郁症中的绝对风险最高。虽然在各个适应症中的绝对风险有所不同(药物和安慰剂相比),但是,在不同适应症的年龄层中风险相对稳定。表1 提供了风险差异(每1000 名患者中药物和安慰剂治疗产生的自杀意念、行为风险差异的例数)。
 
  在儿童临床试验中没有自杀事件发生。在成人临床试验中有自杀事件的发生,但是发生的数量不足以对药物在自杀中的影响做出结论。
 
  自杀意念、行为的风险在长期用药过程中(如几个月后)是否会延续尚不可知。但是,从在成年抑郁症患者中进行的安慰剂对照的维持治疗临床试验的证据充分显示,使用抗抑郁药物可以延缓抑郁症的复发。
 
  无论治疗哪种适应症,对接受抗抑郁药物治疗的所有患者,都应当适当监查和密切观察其临床症状恶化、自杀倾向以及行为变化异常情况,尤其在药物最初治疗的数月内,以及增加或减少剂量的时候。
 
  用抗抑郁药物治疗患有抑郁症、其他精神病性或非精神病性障碍的成年和儿童患者时,可以出现以下症状:焦虑、激越、惊恐发作、失眠、易怒、敌意、攻击性、冲动、静坐不能(精神运动性不安)以及轻症躁狂和躁狂。虽然尚未建立这些症状的出现与抑郁症的恶化和/或自杀冲动的产生之间的因果关系,但注意到了这些症状的出现可能是产生自杀倾向的先兆。
 
  当患者的抑郁症状持续恶化,出现自杀倾向,或出现可能是抑郁症状恶化或自杀倾向的先兆症状时,应当仔细考虑包括可能中止药物治疗在内的治疗方案调整。如果这些症状是严重的、突发的、或与患者当前症状不符合时更应如此。
 
  如果决定中止治疗,剂量应当尽快递减,但需意识到突然停药可能会引起某些症状(参见停止舍曲林治疗中的风险描述)。
 
  用抗抑郁药治疗患有抑郁症或其他精神病性或非精神病性障碍的儿童患者时,应当提醒家属以及看护者有必要监查患者是否出现激动、易怒、行为异常变化、其他以上提及的症状以及出现自杀倾向的情况,一旦出现,立即向医疗卫生专业人士汇报这些症状。家属以及看护者应当每日对患者进行以上监查。使用舍曲林时,处方应当从最小剂量开始,并配合良好的患者管理,以减少过量用药的危险。
 
  双相情感障碍患者的筛查:
 
  抑郁发作可能是双向情感障碍的初期表现。一般认为(虽然未通过对照试验明确),单用抗抑郁药物治疗这类发作可能增加具有双相情感障碍危险患者的混合型/躁狂发作的可能性。尚不明确以上提及的症状是否意味着可能出现这种转变。然而,在用抗抑郁药物开始治疗之前,应当对有抑郁症状的患者进行充分的筛查,以确定它们是否具有双相情感障碍的危险;该筛查应当包括自杀家族史,双相情感障碍和抑郁症家族史在内的详细精神病史。应当注意舍曲林未经批准用于治疗双相情感障碍的抑郁发作。
 
  与单胺氧化酶抑制剂(MAOIs)潜在的相互作用:
 
  已有左洛复(盐酸舍曲林,选择性5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂)与单胺氧化酶抑制剂(MAOI)合用发生严重不良反应、有时甚至是致命不良反应的病例报告。MAOI 包括选择性单胺氧化酶抑制剂,司来吉兰;可逆的单胺氧化酶抑制剂,吗氯贝胺;单胺氧化酶抑制剂药物,如利奈唑胺(一种抗生素,为可逆的非选择性MAOI)和亚甲蓝。这些不良反应包括高热、强直、肌痉挛和生命体征不稳定、精神状态的改变(包括极度的激越,逐渐进展为谵妄和昏迷)。在最近停用SSRI 治疗并开始给予MAOI 治疗的患者中也有出现上述反应的报道。有些患者的表现类似于精神抑制药恶性综合征。此外,有限的SSRIs 和MAOIs 联合用药的动物实验数据提示,这些药物在升高血压、诱发兴奋性行为方面可能具有协同作用。因此,应用MAOI 治疗的患者或停止MAOI 治疗14 天内的患者不能应用舍曲林。同样,在开始给予MAOI 治疗前,至少停用舍曲林14 天。
 
  5-羟色胺综合征或精神抑制药恶性综合征(NMS)样反应:
 
  有报告显示,在单独应用SNRIs 和 SSRIs,包括舍曲林,特别是在与5-羟色胺能药物(包括曲普坦类药物和芬太尼)、损害5-羟色胺代谢的药物(包括MAOIs)、安定药或其他多巴胺拮抗剂合用时,可出现潜在危及生命的5-羟色胺综合征或精神抑制药恶性综合征(NMS)样反应。
 
  5-羟色胺综合征可能包括精神状态的改变(例如,激动、幻觉、昏迷)、自主神经系统紊乱(例如,心动过速、血压变化、过高热)、神经肌肉系统失调(例如,反射亢进、动作失调)和/或胃肠道症状(例如,恶心、呕吐、腹泻)。最严重的5-羟色胺综合征与精神抑制药恶性综合征的表现相似,包括高热、肌肉强直、自主神经不稳定可能伴有生命体征的快速波动,以及精神状态的改变。应对5-羟色胺综合征或精神抑制药恶性综合征样体征和症状进行监测。
 
  应注意并尽量避免左洛复与其他能够增强5-羟色胺神经传导的药物合用,因为左洛复与这些药物可能存在药效学相互作用,如:色氨酸、芬氟拉明、芬太尼、5-HT激动剂或圣约翰草 (贯叶连翘)。
 
  禁止舍曲林与MAOIs 合用治疗抑郁症(见【禁忌】和【注意事项】]-警告,与单胺氧化酶抑制剂(MAOIs)潜在的相互作用)。
 
  如果临床上有合理需要,要联合使用舍曲林和5-羟色胺受体激动剂(曲普坦),建议密切观察患者情况,尤其在治疗初期和增加剂量时(见【药物相互作用】)。
 
  不推荐合并使用舍曲林和5-羟色胺前体物质(如:色胺酸)。舍曲林与任何5-羟色胺能或抗多巴胺能药物,包括安定药合用时,如果出现上述任何事件必须立即停药,并开始对症支持治疗。
 
  糖尿病/血糖控制欠佳
 
  已有接受 SSRIs(包括左洛复)治疗的患者新发糖尿病的病例报告。也有报告伴/不伴糖尿病病史的患者出现血糖控制欠佳,包括高血糖和低血糖。因此应监测患者是否出现血糖波动的症状和体征。应密切监测糖尿病患者的血糖,因其可能需要调整胰岛素和/或口服降糖药的剂量。
 
  实验室检查
 
  有报告显示患者服用舍曲林后尿免疫测定筛查实验出现苯二氮卓类药物假阳性的结果。这是由于该筛查实验缺乏特异性。停用舍曲林后数天内可能出现假阳性结果。气相色谱法/质谱分析法等验证性检查可区分苯二氮卓类药物和舍曲林。
 
  闭角型青光眼
 
  包括舍曲林在内的SSRIs 类药物,可能影响瞳孔大小,造成瞳孔扩大。该散瞳作用可能引起房角狭窄,导致眼内压升高和闭角型青光眼,尤其对于用药前具有这种倾向的患者。因
 
  此,患有闭角型青光眼或者有青光眼病史的患者,应慎用舍曲林。
 
  一般注意事项
 
  1.引起躁狂/轻躁狂 – 在上市前的试验中,接受舍曲林治疗的病人约0.4%出现轻躁狂或躁狂。
 
  2.体重下降 – 一些患者应用本品时,可能出现显著体重下降。但平均而言,在临床对照试验中,与安慰剂比较,应用舍曲林后仅出现轻微的1 或2 磅的体重下降。罕见患者因体重下降而停药。
 
  3.痫性发作 – 本品尚未在癫痫患者中进行评估。本品上市前临床试验中排除了这些患者。应用本品治疗约3000 例的抑郁症患者中,未发现痫性发作者。然而,在约1800 名(有220 名患者[18 岁)接受舍曲林治疗的强迫症患者中,有4 人(约0.2%)出现痫性发作,其中3 例患者为青少年,2 例患有癫痫,1 例患者有癫痫家族史,所有这4 例患者都没有接受抗惊厥药物治疗。
 
  因此,癫痫患者应慎用舍曲林。
 
  4.停用舍曲林治疗
 
  舍曲林和其它 SSRIs 和SNRIs(5-羟色胺及去甲肾上腺素再摄取抑制剂)上市后,有停药时发生不良事件的自发性报告,尤其是在突然停药时,包括下列症状:情绪烦躁、易激惹、激越、头晕、感觉障碍[如感觉异常(如电击样感觉)]、焦虑、意识模糊、头痛、昏睡、情绪不稳定、失眠和轻躁狂。尽管这些事件一般为自限性,但曾有严重停药症状的报告。
 
  当停用本品时,应监测这些症状。如果可能,推荐逐渐减量而非突然停药。若减量或停药后出现无法耐受的症状,可考虑恢复先前的剂量。随后,医生可以继续减量,但应采用更慢的减量速度(见用法用量)。
 
  5.异常出血
 
  SSRIs(包括舍曲林)和SNRIs 可能增加出血事件的风险。如果合用阿司匹林、非甾体类抗炎药(NSAIDs)、华法林和其它抗凝药可能会增加该风险。病例报告和流行病学试验(病例对照和队列设计)显示,服用影响5-羟色胺再摄取的药物后可出现胃肠道出血事件。与使用SSRIs和SNRIs 有关的出血事件包括瘀斑、血肿、鼻衄、瘀点,以及可危及生命的出血。
 
  应警告患者,舍曲林与NSAIDs、阿司匹林或其它可影响凝血的药物合用存在出血风险。
 
  6.微弱的促尿酸排泄作用 – 应用本品后可出现血清尿酸下降(平均约下降7%)。该微弱的促尿酸排泄作用的临床意义未知。
 
  7.有伴发疾病患者的应用 – 本品在伴发某种全身性疾病的患者中的临床应用经验有限。患有影响代谢或血液动力学疾病或状况的患者,应慎用本品。
 
  本品上市前临床试验排除了近期出现心肌梗死或不稳定性心脏疾病的患者。但在双盲临床试验中,对服用本品的774 例患者进行了心电图(ECG)评估,显示应用本品不伴显著ECG 异常。
 
  上市后一项安慰剂对照灵活剂量(舍曲林剂量范围50~200 mg/日,平均剂量89 mg/日)试验,对372 例符合DSM-IV 抑郁症诊断标准的患者进行了随机分组,这些患者近期因心肌梗死(MI)或不稳定性心绞痛而住院。除其它排除标准外,该试验还排除了下列患者:未控制的高血压、需要心脏手术、过去3 个月内接受过冠状动脉搭桥术(CABG)、重度或有症状的心动过缓、非动脉粥样硬化性心绞痛、具有临床意义的肾功能损害(肌酐] 2.5 mg/dl),和具有临床意义的肝功能障碍。患者在急性恢复期(MI 后30 天内,或不稳定性心绞痛住院后)即开始应用本品。
 
  第16 周时与安慰剂比较,在下列终点的差异无显著性:左心室射血分数、所有心血管事件(心绞痛、胸痛、水肿、心悸、晕厥、体位性头晕、充血性心力衰竭(CHF)、MI、心动过速、心动过缓和血压变化)和涉及死亡或需要住院的严重心血管事件(MI、CHF、中风或心绞痛)。
 
  肝功能损害患者:舍曲林在肝脏充分代谢。在慢性轻度肝功能损伤的患者中,舍曲林的清除率降低,导致AUC 和Cmax 升高、清除半衰期延长。舍曲林对中、重度肝功能损伤患者的影响尚未评估。伴发肝脏疾病的患者须慎用舍曲林。若肝功能损伤患者服用本品,应减低服药剂量或给药频率(见注意事项和用法用量)。
 
  肾功能损害患者:舍曲林代谢充分,只有少量本品以原型从尿中排出。1 项临床试验比较了健康志愿者和轻至重度(需要血液透析治疗)肾功能损伤患者,显示肾脏疾病不影响舍曲林的药代动力学和蛋白结合作用。基于该药代动力学结果,肾功能损伤患者无需调整剂量(见临床药理学)。
 
  8.对认知和运动功能的影响 - 对照试验中,本品无镇静作用,亦不影响精神运动功能。虽然实验室数据显示舍曲林对正常受试者的复杂精神运动性活动无损伤。但作用于中枢神经系统的药物可能会对某些个体产生不利影响。因此应告知患者,在了解如何使用舍曲林之前,应谨慎从事需要保持警觉的活动,如驾车或操作机械。
 
  9.低钠血症
 
  在应用SSRIs(包括舍曲林)或SNRIs(5-羟色胺及去甲肾上腺素再摄取抑制剂)治疗时可能出现低钠血症。在许多病例中,低钠血症是抗利尿激素分泌过多综合征(SIADH)的结果。已有血清钠离子水平低于110mmol/L 的病例报道。老年患者、服用利尿剂的患者或其它原因血容量减低的患者在应用SSRIs 及SNRIs 时发生低钠血症的风险可能更大(见【老年用药】)。出现有症状的低钠血症后应考虑停用舍曲林并采取相应的治疗措施。
 
  低钠血症的症状和体征包括:头痛、注意力集中困难、记忆力损伤、意识模糊,无力和平衡障碍(可能导致摔倒)。更严重和/或急性的低钠血症的症状及体征包括幻觉、晕厥、痫性发作、昏迷、呼吸停止及死亡。
 
  10.血小板功能 - 服用本品患者中,罕见血小板功能改变和/或实验室检查异常结果的报告。尽管曾有几例服用本品后出现异常出血或紫癜的报告,但不清楚是否由本品所致。
 
  11.药物滥用和依赖
 
  躯体和心理依赖: 一项随机双盲、安慰剂对照试验比较了舍曲林、阿普唑仑和d-安非他明引起的滥用倾向。本品未产生提示滥用可能的阳性主观效应,如欣快和喜欢服用药物,而这些症状均可见于其它两种药物。本品上市前临床经验中,没有发现任何停药综合征倾向,也没有发现觅药行为。本品动物试验中,没有发现潜在的刺激物或巴比妥样(镇静剂)滥用。不过,如同所有其它CNS 活性药物,医生应仔细对患者进行药物滥用史评估,并对此类患者进行严格随访,观察他们是否有舍曲林的误用或滥用迹象(如耐受形成、剂量提高、觅药行为)。
 
  12. 骨折
 
  流行病学研究显示应用五羟色胺再摄取抑制剂(SRIs)包括舍曲林治疗的患者骨折风险增加。但导致骨折风险的作用机制尚不明确。
 

【盐酸舍曲林片Zoloft 不良反应】
 
    虽然不能确定所有事件均是由舍曲林引起的,但我们仍然报告了从临床试验期间及产品上市后的报告中所收集到的所有不良事件。
 
  临床试验资料
 
  在舍曲林和安慰剂治疗抑郁症的多剂量对照临床研究中,与安慰剂组相比,常见的不良反应有:
 
  胃肠道:腹泻/稀便、口干、消化不良和恶心。
 
  代谢及营养:厌食
 
  神经系统:眩晕、嗜睡和震颤。
 
  精神:失眠
 
  生殖系统及乳腺:性功能障碍(主要为男性射精延迟)。
 
  皮肤及皮下组织:多汗
 
  在强迫症患者的双盲,安慰剂对照试验中观察到的不良反应与在抑郁症患者的临床试验中观察到的相似。
 
  上市后资料:
 
  舍曲林上市后,已收到服用舍曲林患者不良事件的自发报告。包括有:
 
  血液与淋巴系统:中性粒细胞缺乏及血小板缺乏症。
 
  心脏:心悸及心动过速。
 
  耳及迷路:耳鸣
 
  内分泌:高泌乳素血症、甲状腺功能低下及ADH 分泌失调综合症。
 
  眼科:瞳孔变大及视觉异常。
 
  胃肠道:腹痛、便秘、胰腺炎及呕吐。
 
  全身及给药部位:虚弱、胸痛、外周性水肿、乏力、发热及不适。
 
  肝胆系统:严重肝病(包括肝炎、黄疸和肝功能衰竭)及无症状性血清转氨酶升高(SGOT 和SGPT)。
 
  免疫系统:过敏反应、过敏症及类过敏反应。
 
  检查:临床化验结果异常、血小板功能改变、血清胆固醇增高、体重减轻及体重增加。
 
  代谢及营养:食欲增强及低钠血症。
 
  肌肉骨骼及结缔组织:关节痛及肌肉痉挛。
 
  神经系统:昏迷、抽搐、头痛、感觉减退、偏头痛、运动障碍(包括锥体外系副反应症状如多动、肌张力增高、磨牙及步态异常)、肌肉不自主收缩、感觉异常和昏厥。还有5-羟色胺综合症相关的症状和体征,如一些因同时使用5-羟色胺能药物而引起的焦虑不安、意识模糊、大汗、腹泻、发热、高血压、肌强直及心动过速。
 
  精神:攻击性反应、激越、焦虑、抑郁症状、欣快、幻觉、女性性欲减退、男性性欲减退、恶梦及精神病。
 
  肾脏及泌尿系统:尿失禁及尿潴留。
 
  生殖系统及乳腺:溢乳、男子乳腺过度发育、月经不调及阴茎异常勃起。
 
  呼吸、胸及纵隔:支气管痉挛及打哈欠。
 
  皮肤及皮下组织:脱发症、血管性水肿、面部水肿、眼周浮肿、皮肤光敏反应、瘙痒、紫癜、皮疹(罕有脱皮性皮炎,如多形性红斑:Stevens-Johnson 综合症、表皮坏死溶解)及荨麻疹。
 
  血管:异常出血(如鼻衄、胃肠出血或血尿)、潮热及高血压。
 
  外伤,中毒及术后/手术/操作性并发症:骨折(发生率-未知(无法根据目前所有数据判断)
 
  其它:有报告舍曲林停药后的症状包括:焦虑不安、忧虑、眩晕、头痛、恶心及感觉异常。

Zoloft(Sertraline)
 
Sertraline, sold under the trade name Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.[8] It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and social anxiety disorder.[8] Sertraline is taken by mouth.[8]
Common side effects include diarrhea, sexual dysfunction, and troubles with sleep.[8]Serious side effects include an increased risk of suicide in those less than 25 years old and serotonin syndrome.[8] It is unclear whether use during pregnancy or breastfeeding is safe.[9]It should not be used together with MAO inhibitor medication.[8] Sertraline is believed to work by increasing serotonin effects in the brain.[8]
 
Sertraline was approved for medical use in the United States in 1991 and initially sold by Pfizer.[8] It is currently available as a generic medication.[8] In the United States, the wholesale cost is about 1.50 USD per month as of 2018.[10] In 2016, it was the most prescribed psychiatric medication in the United States,[11] with over 37 million prescriptions.[12]
 
Medical uses
 
Sertraline is used for a number of conditions, including major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder (SAD).[8] It has also been used for premature ejaculation and vascular headaches but evidence of the effectiveness in treating those conditions is not robust.[8]Sertraline is not approved for use in children except for those with OCD.[13][14]
Depression
It is unclear if sertraline is any different than another SSRI, paroxetine, for depression.[15]
 
Evidence does not show a benefit in children with depression.[16]
 
With depression in dementia, there is no benefit compared to either placebo or mirtazapine.[17]
Comparison with other antidepressants
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) as a group are considered to work better than SSRIs for melancholic depression[18] and in inpatients,[19] but not necessarily for simply more severe depression.[20] In line with this generalization, sertraline was no better than placebo in inpatients (see History) and as effective as the TCA clomipramine for severe depression.[21]The comparative efficacy of sertraline and TCAs for melancholic depression has not been studied. A 1998 review suggested that, due to its pharmacology, sertraline may be more efficacious than other SSRIs and equal to TCAs for the treatment of melancholic depression.[22]
 
A meta-analysis of 12 new-generation antidepressants showed that sertraline and escitalopram are the best in terms of efficacy and acceptability in the acute-phase treatment of adults with unipolar MDD. Reboxetine was significantly worse.[23]
 
Comparative clinical trials demonstrated that sertraline is similar in efficacy against depression to moclobemide,[24] nefazodone,[25] escitalopram, bupropion,[26] citalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and mirtazapine.[27] There is low quality evidence that sertraline is more efficacious for the treatment of depression than fluoxetine.[28]
Elderly
Sertraline used for the treatment of depression in elderly (older than 60) patients was superior to placebo and comparable to another SSRI fluoxetine, and TCAs amitriptyline, nortriptyline (Pamelor) and imipramine. Sertraline had much lower rates of adverse effects than these TCAs, with the exception of nausea, which occurred more frequently with sertraline. In addition, sertraline appeared to be more effective than fluoxetine or nortriptyline in the older-than-70 subgroup.[29] A 2003 trial of sertraline vs. placebo in elderly patients showed a statistically significant (that is, unlikely to occur by chance), but clinically very modest improvement in depression and no improvement in quality of life.[30]
A meta-analysis on SSRIs and SNRIs that look at partial response (defined as at least a 50% reduction in depression score from baseline) found that sertraline, paroxetine and duloxetine were better than placebo.[31]
Obsessive–compulsive disorder
Sertraline is effective for the treatment of OCD in adults and children.[32] It was better tolerated and, based on intention to treat analysis, performed better than the gold standard of OCD treatment clomipramine.[33] It is generally accepted that the sertraline dosages necessary for the effective treatment of OCD are higher than the usual dosage for depression.[34] The onset of action is also slower for OCD than for depression.[35]
 
Cognitive behavioral therapy alone was superior to sertraline in both adults and children; however, the best results were achieved using a combination of these treatments.[36][37]
Panic disorder
Treatment of panic disorder with sertraline results in a decrease of the number of panic attacks and an improved quality of life.[38] In four double-blind studies sertraline was shown to be superior to placebo for the treatment of panic disorder. The response rate was independent of the dose. In addition to decreasing the frequency of panic attacks by about 80% (vs. 45% for placebo) and decreasing general anxiety, sertraline resulted in improvement of quality of life on most parameters. The patients rated as "improved" on sertraline reported better quality of life than the ones who "improved" on placebo. The authors of the study argued that the improvement achieved with sertraline is different and of a better quality than the improvement achieved with placebo.[38][39] Sertraline was equally effective for men and women.[39] While imprecise, comparison of the results of trials of sertraline with separate trials of other anti-panic agents (clomipramine, imipramine, clonazepam, alprazolam, fluvoxamine and paroxetine) indicates approximate equivalence of these medications.[38]
Other anxiety disorders
Sertraline is effective for the treatment of social phobia.[40] Improvement in scores on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were found with sertraline but not with placebo.[41] In children, a combination of sertraline and cognitive behavioural therapy had a superior response rate to each intervention alone, and both sertraline and CBT were alone superior to placebo and not significantly different from one another.[42]
 
There is tentative evidence that sertraline, as well as other SSRI/SNRI antidepressants, can help with the symptoms of general anxiety disorder.[43] The trials have generally been short in length (6–12 weeks) and pharmacological treatments are associated with more frequent side effects.[43]
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
SSRIs, including sertraline, reduce the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.[44] Side effects such as nausea are common.[44] Sertraline is effective in alleviating the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. Significant improvement was observed in 50–60% of cases treated with sertraline vs. 20–30% of cases on placebo. The improvement began during the first week of treatment, and in addition to mood, irritability, and anxiety, improvement was reflected in better family functioning, social activity and general quality of life. Work functioning and physical symptoms, such as swelling, bloating and breast tenderness, were less responsive to sertraline.[45][46] Taking sertraline only during the luteal phase, that is, the 12–14 days before menses, was shown to work as well as continuous treatment.[44]
Other indications
Sertraline when taken daily can be useful for the treatment of some aspects of premature ejaculation.[47] A disadvantage of SSRIs is that they require continuous daily treatment to delay ejaculation significantly,[48] and it is not clear how they affect psychological distress of those with the condition or the person's control over ejaculation timing.[49]
 
The benefit of sertraline in PTSD is not significant per the National Institute of Clinical Excellence.[50] Others, however, do feel that there is a benefit from its use.[51]
 
Contraindications
Pregnancy and lactation
The studies comparing the levels of sertraline and its principal metabolite, desmethylsertraline, in mother's blood to their concentration in umbilical cord blood at the time of delivery indicated that foetal exposure to sertraline and its metabolite is approximately a third of the maternal exposure.[52][53] Concentration of sertraline and desmethylsertraline in breast milk is highly variable and, on average, is of the same order of magnitude as their concentration in the blood plasma of the mother. As a result, more than half of breast-fed babies receive less than 2 mg/day of sertraline and desmethylsertraline combined, and in most cases these substances are undetectable in their blood.[54] No changes in serotoninuptake by the platelets of breast-fed infants were found, as measured by their blood serotonin levels before and after their mothers began sertraline treatment.[55]
 
Adverse effects
 
Compared to other SSRIs, sertraline tends to be associated with a higher rate of psychiatric side effects and diarrhea.[56][57] It tends to be more activating (that is, associated with a higher rate of anxiety, agitation, insomnia, etc.) than other SSRIs, aside from fluoxetine.[58]
 
Over more than six months of sertraline therapy for depression, people showed a nonsignificant weight increase of 0.1%.[59] Similarly, a 30-month-long treatment with sertraline for OCD resulted in a mean weight gain of 1.5% (1 kg).[60] Although the difference did not reach statistical significance, the weight gain was lower for fluoxetine (1%) but higher for citalopram, fluvoxamine and paroxetine (2.5%). Of the sertraline group, 4.5% gained a large amount of weight (defined as more than 7% gain). This result compares favorably with placebo, where, according to the literature, 3–6% of patients gained more than 7% of their initial weight. The large weight gain was observed only among female members of the sertraline group; the significance of this finding is unclear because of the small size of the group.[60] The incidence of diarrhea is higher with sertraline—especially when prescribed at higher doses—in comparison to other SSRIs.[15]
 
Over a two-week treatment of healthy volunteers, sertraline slightly improved verbal fluency but did not affect word learning, short-term memory, vigilance, flicker fusion time, choice reaction time, memory span, or psychomotor coordination.[61][62] In spite of lower subjective rating, that is, feeling that they performed worse, no clinically relevant differences were observed in the objective cognitive performance in a group of people treated for depression with sertraline for 1.5 years as compared to healthy controls.[63] In children and adolescents taking sertraline for six weeks for anxiety disorders, 18 out of 20 measures of memory, attention and alertness stayed unchanged. Divided attention was improved and verbal memory under interference conditions decreased marginally. Because of the large number of measures taken, it is possible that these changes were still due to chance.[64] The unique effect of sertraline on dopaminergic neurotransmission may be related to these effects on cognition and vigilance.[65][66] Sertraline effect on the dopaminergic systemmay explain the risk of oromandibular dystonia.[67][68]
Sexual
Like other SSRIs, sertraline is associated with sexual side effects, including sexual arousal disorder and difficulty achieving orgasm. The frequency of sexual side effects depends on whether they are reported by people spontaneously, as in the manufacturer's trials, or actively solicited by physicians. While nefazodone, bupropion, and reboxetine do not have negative effects on sexual functioning, 67% of men on sertraline experienced ejaculation difficulties versus 18% before the treatment.[69] Sexual arousal disorder, defined as "inadequate lubrication and swelling for women and erectile difficulties for men", occurred in 12% of people on sertraline as compared with 1% of patients on placebo. The mood improvement resulting from the treatment with sertraline sometimes counteracted these side effects, so that sexual desire and overall satisfaction with sex stayed the same as before the sertraline treatment. However, under the action of placebo the desire and satisfaction slightly improved.[70]
 
Some people experience persistent sexual side effects after they stop taking SSRIs.[71] This is known as Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction (PSSD). Common symptoms in these cases include genital anesthesia, erectile dysfunction, anhedonia, decreased libido, premature ejaculation, vaginal lubrication issues, and nipple insensitivity in women. Rates of PSSD are unknown, and there is no established treatment.[72]
Suicide
The FDA requires all antidepressants, including sertraline, to carry a boxed warning stating that antidepressants may increase the risk of suicide in persons younger than 25 years. This warning is based on statistical analyses conducted by two independent groups of FDA experts that found a twofold increase of suicidal ideation and behavior in children and adolescents, and a 1.5-fold increase of suicidal behavior in the 18–24 age group.[73][74][75]
 
Suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials are rare. For the above analysis, the FDA combined the results of 295 trials of 11 antidepressants for psychiatric indications in order to obtain statistically significant results. Considered separately, sertraline use in adults decreased the odds of suicidal behavior with a marginal statistical significance by 37%[75] or 50%[74] depending on the statistical technique used. The authors of the FDA analysis note that "given the large number of comparisons made in this review, chance is a very plausible explanation for this difference".[74]The more complete data submitted later by the sertraline manufacturer Pfizer indicated increased suicidal behavior.[76] Similarly, the analysis conducted by the UK MHRA found a 50% increase of odds of suicide-related events, not reaching statistical significance, in the patients on sertraline as compared to the ones on placebo.[77][78]
Concerns have been raised that suicidal acts among participants in multiple studies were not reported in published articles reporting the studies.[79]
 
Overdose
 
Acute overdosage is often manifested by emesis, lethargy, ataxia, tachycardia and seizures. Plasma, serum or blood concentrations of sertraline and norsertraline, its major active metabolite, may be measured to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to aid in the medicolegal investigation of fatalities.[81] As with most other SSRIs its toxicity in overdose is considered relatively low.[56][82]
 
Mechanism of action
 
Sertraline acts as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI),[104] with an affinity (Ki) for the serotonin transporter (SERT) of 0.4 nM and an IC50value of 2.8 nM, according to a couple of studies.[97][99] It is highly selective in its inhibition of serotonin reuptake.[105] By inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, sertraline increases extracellular levels of serotonin and thereby increases serotonergic neurotransmission in the brain. It is this action that is thought to be responsible for the antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antiobsessional effects of sertraline.
Sertraline does not have significant affinity for the norepinephrine transporter (NET) or the serotonin, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, or acetylcholine receptors.[106][96] On the other hand, it does show high affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the sigma σ1 receptor (but not the σ2 receptor).[97][107] However, its affinities for these sites are around 100-fold or more lower than for the SERT.[96][97][103]
 
 




注:药品如有新包装,以新包装为准。以上资讯仅供医护人员内部讨论,不作任何用药依据,具体用药指引,请咨询主治医师。

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