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扎奈普隆Sonata

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扎奈普隆Sonata
药品名称:扎奈普隆Sonata
药品别名:扎来普隆
英 文 名:Sonata
药品价格:$ 美国市场售价 16.68 美元
研发公司:
适 用 症:本品适用于失眠的短时间的治疗
型号规格:胶囊装,每粒含有效成份5mg/10mg两种规格,每瓶100粒装。
药品详情:

【扎奈普隆Sonata 简述】
 
    扎奈普隆Sonata又名扎来普隆,是一种新型吡唑并嘧啶结构的非苯二氮卓类镇静催眠药,作用于γ-氨基丁酸——苯二氮卓(GABA-BZ)受体,调节GABA-BZ受体氯离子通道复合物,产生拟苯二氮卓镇静作用、抗焦虑活性和抗惊厥活性,但与苯二氮卓类药物相比副作用较轻。


扎奈普隆Sonata_香港济民药业
 
【扎奈普隆Sonata 适应症】
 
    本品适用于失眠的短时间的治疗,可以使失眠病人很快入睡,缩短入睡时间,延长睡眠时间,减少觉醒的次数。
 
【扎奈普隆Sonata 规格】
 
    本品为胶囊装,每粒含有效成份5mg/10mg两种规格,每瓶100粒装。
 
【扎奈普隆Sonata 服用方法】
 
    睡前温水送服,视患者体重,轻者每次服用5mg,普通体重患者10mg,一次服用量不可超过20mg。
 
【扎奈普隆Sonata 注意事项】
 
    镇静药通常使用不可多于7~10天,并且当患者服用多于2~3周时必须对他们重新检查。因此,扎奈普隆处方量不可超过1个月。 扎奈普隆应于临睡前服用或在患者入睡困难时服用,而在含高脂肪正餐时或之后服用此药可引起药物吸收减缓,并会降低扎奈普隆对浅睡眠的作用。
 
【扎奈普隆Sonata 不良反应】
 
    常见副作用为背部、胸部疼痛、偏头痛、便秘、口干、关节炎、抑郁、紧张、幻觉、支气管炎、瘙痒、皮疹、结膜炎等。停止服药后不良反应消失。

Sonata(Zaleplon)

Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata, Starnoc, and Andante) is a sedative-hypnotic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia. It is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic from the pyrazolopyrimidine class.[1]
 
Sonata (US) is manufactured by King Pharmaceuticals of Bristol, TN. Gedeon Richter Plc.manufactures zaleplon under the brand name Andante (RU). Starnoc has been discontinued in Canada but can be manufactured if a prescription is brought to a compounding pharmacy.[2] It is prescribed rarely in the United Kingdom, with zopiclone being the preferred Z-drug by the National Health Service (NHS).[citation needed]
 
Medical uses
 
Zaleplon is slightly effective in the management/treatment of insomnia,[3] primarily characterized by difficulty falling asleep. Due to its ultrashort elimination half-life, zaleplon may not be effective in reducing premature awakenings.
 
It may result in an impaired ability to drive the next day, though it has proven promising when compared to other sedative/hypnotics and next-day residual sedation.[4] It may have advantages over benzodiazepines with fewer adverse effects.[5]
 
Neither zaleplon, nor any nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic class medication should be combined with alcohol, as both modulate GABAA receptor sites, and in a synergistic manner increase the chances of fatal respiratory depression and asphyxiation from vomiting.[citation needed]
Special populations
Zaleplon is not recommended for chronic use in the elderly.[6] The elderly are more sensitive to the adverse effects of zaleplon such as cognitive side effects. Zaleplon may increase the risk of injury among the elderly. It should not be used while in pregnancy or lactation, and in patients with a history of alcohol or drug abuse, psychotic illness or depression, clinicians should devote more attention.[7]
 
When compared with benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines (including zaleplon) offer few significant advantages in efficacy and tolerability among elderly individuals. Long-term use of sedative/hypnotics for insomnia has traditionally been discouraged for reasons that include concerns about addiction and rebound insomnia, as well to the risk of side effects associated to GABAA agonists, such as cognitive impairment, anterograde amnesia, daytime sedation, musculoskeletal impairment, and subsequently an increased risk of harm to oneself (e.g. falling) and to others (e.g. automotive accidents). Though, quite obviously as the body and brain age, these aforementioned phenomena are expected events, as they occur daily regardless of ingestion of a sedative/hypnotic. Thus, statistically significant and empirical evidence are arguably still absent as dramatic precautions and conclusions are drawn irrespective of the debilitating realities that accompany insomnia and the fact that these medicines do indeed provide assistance to millions of elderly individuals. It is important to distinguish between the extrapolation of potential side effects relative to the vast number of examples, wherein the sedative/hypnotic has proven therapeutically beneficial and appropriate.
 
In addition, some contend the efficacy and safety of long-term use of these agents remains to be enumerated, but nothing concrete suggests long-term use poses any direct harm to a person.[8] Still, as of today neither benzodiazepines nor nonbenzodiazepines are recommended for the long-term treatment of insomnia.
 
Adverse effects
 
The adverse effects of zaleplon are similar to the adverse effects of benzodiazepines, although with less next-day sedation,[9] and in two studies zaleplon use was found not to cause an increase in traffic accidents, as compared to other hypnotics currently on the market.[10][11]
 
Sleeping pills, including zaleplon, have been associated with an increased risk of death.[12]
 
Available data cannot provide a reliable estimate of the incidence of dependence during treatment at recommended doses of zaleplon (typically 5–20 mg before bed). Other sedative/hypnotics have been associated with various signs and symptoms of a withdrawal syndrome, following abrupt discontinuation, ranging from mild dysphoria and insomnia to more serious cases that include abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, tremors, and convulsions. Following abrupt cessation, the seizure threshold is further lowered, wherein coma and death are possible outcomes if untreated.
 
Some evidence suggests zaleplon is not as chemically reinforcing and exhibits far fewer rebound effects when compared with other nonbenzodiazepines, or Z-drugs.[13]
A 2009 meta-analysis found a 44% higher rate of mild infections, such as pharyngitis or sinusitis, in people taking zaleplon or other hypnotic drugs compared to those taking a placebo.[14]
 
Mechanism of action
 
Zaleplon is a high-affinity ligand of positive modulator sites of GABAA receptors, which enhances GABAergic inhibition of neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The ultrashort half-life gives zaleplon a unique advantage over other hypnotics because of its lack of next-day residual effects on driving and other performance-related skills.[16][17] Unlike nonselective benzodiazepine drugs and zopiclone, which distort the sleep pattern, zaleplon appears to induce sleep without disrupting the natural sleep architecture.[18]
 
A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials which compared benzodiazepines against zaleplon or other Z-drugs such as zolpidem, zopiclone, and eszopiclone has found few clear and consistent differences between zaleplon and the benzodiazepines in terms of sleep onset latency, total sleep duration, number of awakenings, quality of sleep, adverse events, tolerance, rebound insomnia, and daytime alertness.[19]
 
Zaleplon has a pharmacological profile similar to benzodiazepines, characterized by an increase in slow wave deep sleep (SWDS) with rapid onset of hypnotic action. Zaleplon is a full agonist for the benzodiazepine α1 receptor located on the GABAA receptor complex in the body, with lower affinity for the α2 and α3 subsites. It selectively enhances the action of GABA similar to, but more selectively than benzodiazepines. Zaleplon, although not a benzodiazepine, maintains a very similar chemical structure nonetheless, known for inducing hypnotic effects by α1subreceptor sites, anxiolytic and muscle relaxant effects via α2 and α3 subsites, with negligible anticonvulsant properties (via α5 subsite), as zaleplon action is modulated at benzodiazepine receptor sites. The elimination half-life of zaleplon is about 1–1.5 hours. The absorption rate of zaleplon is rapid and the onset of therapeutic effects is typically breached within 5–15 minutes following ingestion.
 
Zaleplon should be understood as an ultrashort-acting sedative-hypnotic drug for the treatment of insomnia. Zaleplon increases EEG power density in the δ-frequency band and a decrease in the energy of the θ-frequency band[20][21]
 
 




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